# Answer: Footnotes and Direct References

If you quote another author (using his exact same words) or if you stipulate another author’s theory, argumentation, idea or group of ideas, then a footnote must be used in order to clearly identify the source of your information.  Hence, if you state in your paper that “In his book, Jefferson the President, author Dumas Malone asserts that Thomas Jefferson was (insert information here)”, then you will also have to add a reference number at the end of your sentence as well as a reference note (footnote, endnote or electronic reference). The reference number is linked to the reference note.